19th Century Messianisms…

Peace, one and all…
I had an interesting conversation today about the Baha’i faith. As it happens, or rather as God willed it, the Baha’i faith is an area I’m interested in (as an outgrowth of Twelver Shiism). As we were talking, it occured to me that the 19th century saw the emergence of quite a few Islamic messianic religious movements. For a start, the Bab and Baha’ullah both emerge in mid-19th century Persia (during the Qajar period). In contemporary India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad began preaching the message of Ahmadiyya. Then, over in Sudan, Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Mahdi was also a prominent force at this time. Although not exactly in the same category, one might even include the Sanusi movement of Libya.

Why should the 19th century have witnessed so many messianic movements? Well, quite apart from purely religious answers (which lie within the realm of faith), perhaps the impact of colonialism can also offer some insights. That is, looking at the above list, every messianic movement began in a land colonised by a European power or else heavily influenced by it (as with Persia). Perhaps these movements can be seen as related to wider Islamic reform movements of the time: Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab in what was to become Saudi Arabia; Muhammad al-Shawkani in Zaydite Yemen; the Deobandi movement in India; the Shaykhi movement within Twelver Shiism. Interestingly, only two emerge from a broadly Shii milieu; the other examples cited here all arose with Sunni Islam.

The list can be lengthened, but I think the general point is clear. If nothing else, there is room for an interesting research topic here insha Allah.

Ma’as salama,

Abdur Rahman


18 thoughts on “19th Century Messianisms…

  1. Dear Abdur Rahman,

    Assalaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatAllahe ta’ala wa barakaatuhu

    You highlight an interesting observation about so many messianic movements emerging in the 19th Century, and many of these occurred during, but not necessarily in opposition to, or as a reactionary response to, the collonial powers under which they happened to have occurred.

    It is furtehr interesting to note the link between some of these movements’ leaders and a claim to the office of being the ‘Mahdi’ – the one who is guided by Allah.

    There is also another movement, in Senegal, and although I cannot remember the name of the movement, their leader was Shaykh Ahmadu Bamba – he claimed the office of the Mahdi as well and interestingly fits into this milleu as it came about as a resistance to the French colonialists.

    Shaykh Ahmadu Bamba showed the miracle of having rolled out his musalla (prayer mat) on the sea when the French armies came to conquer, and started offering salat – on the oceans.

    He, along with other leaders, such as that of the Ahmadiyya movement, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad al-Qadiani, claimed to have shown certain miracles in support of their claims which could not have been shown by ordinary man without the support and divine ordinance by Allah. For example, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad al-Qadiani claims to have had the sign of the eclipse of the sun and the moon in the month of ramadhan – the sun on the middle of its days of eclipse, and the moon on the middle of its days of eclipse – all in accordance with a hadith of the Prophet (saw) which finds acceptance amongst the Shi’a narrations as it comes mostly from the narrators who are counted amongst the ahl al-bait.

    Now if we assess these miracles, it is not unknown in Islam to have such miracles shown – especially as the miracle is ACTUALLY performed by Allah, in support of His divinely appointed reformer/wali/mujaddid.

    What is surprising is that these miracles were accepted by their followers in their respective times as well as some of the opponents of the claimants.

    However, no one has adequately attempted to discredit or explain these miracles – as anythig other than miracles.

    having said that, the miracle shown in support of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad al-Qadiani not only supports his claim – but over and above this, if it is proven to have happened – as evidenced by the Ahmadiyya explanations and also independent eye-witness accounts from non-Ahmadiyyas – it goes to prove the truth of the prophecy of the Prophet (saw) made 1400 years ago and with such precision as the eclipses happened on exactly those days prescribed by the Prophet (saw) himself.

    Any thoughts on this??!


  2. Wa alaikum salaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh brother Sirajul Haq Khan,

    Welcome to my online home. Thank you for posting your thoughts. Allah bless you always.

    I wrote this post some time ago (2 years more or less) and did not intend to suggest that these movements were entirely a reaction to colonialism. Rather, it just struck me as an interesting observation.

    At any rate, perhaps the broader point I was reaching for was one of authority: that is, the need to recover authority in the face of such issues. But, then, I may well be wide of the mark.

    As for Mirza Ghulam Ahmad al-Qadiani, I know comparatively little – though I am aware of a strong polemical debate between the Ahmadi and wider Muslim communities.

    I am not in the least bit interested in that conflict myself, I must say. I am happy to discuss things more fully and to learn more – which is my main purpose in this blog.

    I do not say this to appear hostile. Wallah brother! I am not. I just mean to make it clear that though I am interested in discussion, dialogue and insha Allah, friendship, I am not interested in heated argument.

    I must say that I do not support the poor treatment of the Ahmadi community in Pakistan. Indeed, I would be against it anywhere.

    Allah bless you and yours always.

    My best salaams to you…

    Abdur Rahman

  3. as-Salamu ‘Alaykum wa RahmatAllahi wa Barakatuh

    Brother, know also that Seyyidina Ahmad al-Qadiani was heavily engaged in Tasawwuf and came from a Sufi understanding of Islam, while practising the Hanafiyyah madhhab (and later his own certain ahkam in his capacity as Hakm ‘Adil, as the Imam Mahdi would be).

    In his youth he read the entire Mathnavi of Mawlana Rumi (rahmatAllahu ‘alayh) as well as the Dala’il al-Khayrat of Imam al-Jazuli. He engaged in zuhd and went into khulwah for 40 days as well.

    There are narrations specifically in regards to the Imam Mahdi going into khulwah, which perhaps our Shi’ah brothers have understood to mean the Imam Mahdi is in Ghaybah (occultation). Ahmad’s khulwah was so secretive that he retreated in a far away place and would not allow even his family or friends to see him (much like Imam Ghazali later in his life).

    “Seyyidina Imam Mahdi will certainly retire into occultation and turn away from the public during that occultation.” (Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Numani, al-Ghaybah al-Numani, p. 216)

    Seyyidina Husseyn bin ‘Ali (radiAllahu ‘anhu) said:

    “Imam Mahdi will disappear from sight for a time.” (Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 51, p. 133; Al-Hurr al-Amili, Ithbat al-Hudat, Vol. 2, p. 333 and 399)

    His teachings also are ghayr tashri’i (non-law-bearing), and completely under the zhill (as a mirror reflection) and buruz (in the shadow of) the Prophet Muhammad (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). These terms have been established amongst the Sufi saints for centuries, and this type of “prophethood” (which Ahmad further called as ‘Ghayr Haqiqi’ for himself) is the Akbarian view of Ummati Nabuwwah taken by Shaykh al-Akbar Ibn ‘Arabi. Indeed, Ahmad writes in his book, al-Wasiyyat that many awliya’Allah in the Ummah were Ummati “Nabis” (in terms of true dreams, revelations, and visions – ruyaa’, ilhamiyyah, mukaashifah) like this, however Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) simply did not tell them that they were as such, but simply as Muhadithin, awliya’, sadiqin, etc.

    Know also that ‘Ali Muhammad al-Shirazi “al-Bab” was killed by firing squad, and Mirza Husseyn ‘Ali al-Nuri “Baha’Allah” died in prison. Amongst the other claimants a lot of them were killed or died in unfortunate circumstances like this, and their followers not widely established today (with the exception of the Baha’i Faith, of which I have studied deeply and met many Baha’is myself).

    I would love to talk further with you brother, for intellectual discussion about these matters.

  4. as-Salamu ‘Alaykum wa RahmatAllahi wa Barakatuh brother ‘Abd al-Rahman.

    I write this for you to understand why we hold our beliefs about Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Imam Mahdi, as a benefit of my goodwill and extension of love and peace to you.

    As according to Ahadith (Narrations of the Prophet Muhammad [sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam]):

    al-Masīḥ al-Maʿūd (Promised Messiah):
    – Yaksuru’l-salīb (break the cross)
    – Yaqtulu’l-khinzīr (kill the swine)
    – Yaḍaʿu’l-ḥarb / Yaḍaʿu’l-jizya awzāruhā (end war / end [the necessity for taking] Jizya)
    – He will spread wealth but people will not want to take it

    Imam Mahdī al-Maʿhūd:
    – Imāmukum minkum – He will be your Imam from amongst yourselves
    – Ḥakam – He will be the Arbiter (of Fiqh and other Islamic matters)
    – ʿĀdil – He will deal justly amongst the people

    (To check Ahādith: http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=261)

    There are many authentic Ahādith that deal with these aspects of the Promised Messiah and Mahdi but 1 in particular states that Masih and Mahdi and their respective qualities are in fact the same person:

    عن أبي هريرة عن النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال ‏يوشك من عاش منكم أن يلقى ‏عيسى ابن مريم ‏ ‏إماما مهديا وحكما عدلا فيكسر الصليب ويقتل الخنزير ويضع ‏ ‏الجزية ‏ ‏وتضع الحرب ‏ ‏أوزارها ‏

    Translation (by myself):

    Abū Hurayrah (radiAllahu ‘anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallAllāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

    “Whosoever from amongst you that is living when ‘Īsa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary) arrives (yalaqa), (he is) the Imām Mahdī and Hakam ‘Adil (Just Arbiter), (he will) then break the cross (yaksaru al-Salīb) and kill the swine (yaqtalu al-Khinzīr) and put Jizyah (yada’ al-Jizyah) and war (yada’ al-Harb) to an end (awzāruhā).” (Musnad Ahmad, Hadith #9002)

    The hadīth clearly states that “Īsa ibn Maryam Imāman Mahdīyan” (Jesus son of Mary is the Imam Mahdī). Further proof of this is that the qualities of the Masīh (breaking the cross, killing the pig, and putting an end to war and jizyah) are simultaneously put together with the qualities of the Mahdī (being Hakam ‘Adil).

    Furthermore, it is narrated:

    أن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏لا يزداد الأمر إلا شدة ولا الدنيا إلا إدبارا ولا الناس إلا ‏ ‏شحا ‏ ‏ولا تقوم الساعة إلا على شرار الناس ولا المهدي إلا ‏ ‏عيسى ابن مريم

    The Messenger of Allah said:
    “…Lā Mahdīyun illā ‘Īsa ibn Maryam – There is no Mahdī except Jesus son of Mary.” (Ibn Mājāh, Hadith #5579)

    Also, the Prophet (sa) gives 2 different physical descriptions of Jesus of Nazareth who lived 2,000 years ago, and the person who is to come in the spirit of Jesus (as) whom he calls “Messiah son of Mary”.

    During his Mi’rāj (Night Journey to Heaven), it is narrated that he saw Jesus of Nazareth (as), the Prophet and Messiah sent unto the Israelites in Heaven with the other deceased Prophets of the past:

    “Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “I saw Jesus, Moses and Abraham. Jesus was of a rosy complexion, with curly hair, and a broad chest. As for Moses, he was of a brown complexion and stout, with straight hair, and in this he resembled the men of Al-Zutt.“ (Sahīh al-
    Bukhāri, Kitāb al-Anbiya, Hadith #3255)

    Then in the same book, which is considered as the most authentic Islamic narrative ba’da al-Qur’ān (after the Qur’ān) under the ijmā’ of all of the scholars of Islām of the past and present, the Prophet (sa) gives a description of the Messiah who is to come, whom he saw in a kashf (spiritual vision). Note that it is the same narrator of the Hadith (Ibn ‘Umar) and same compilation of Ahadith (Sahih al-Bukhari):

    Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said:

    “I saw myself by the Ka’bah last night and saw a brown-skinned man – the best (that can be seen) of this complexion – with straight hair down to the his earlobes – the best (that can be seen) of this type of hair – and he had combed his hair, from which water was dripping, and he was performing the Tawaf (circumambulation) around the Ka’bah while leaning on the shoulders of two men. I asked, “Who is this man?” Someone said,”The Messiah, son of Mary.”

    Then I saw another man with bushy hair and who was blind in the right eye; that eye was like a prominent grape. I asked, “Who is this?” It was said,”The Antichrist Messiah (al-Masih al-Dajjal).” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Interpretation of Dreams, Hadith #6508)

    Any fair-minded individual may see the clear explanation of Masih al-Dajjal as according to Classical (fus’ha) Arabic lexicon, Qur’an, and Hadith, as having already appeared along with Ya’juj and Ma’juj (Gog and Magog), here:

    This is the view taken by many contemporary intelligent non-Ahmadi shuyūkh as well, such as Shaykh Hamzah Yusuf (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0w3Z9s8oVK8) and Shaykh Imran Hussayn (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8sPNHC9lt4).

    So it can be seen that Jesus (who has passed away) had a rosy-white complexion and curly hair, and the Messiah who is to come in the spirit of Jesus (as the Qur’an, Ahadith, and consensus of Abu Bakr (ra) and the Sahabah, and many later awliya’Allah such as Imam Malik, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Taymiyyah, and others stated that Jesus is dead) has light brown skin (wheatish) with straight hair.

    This indicates they are 2 different people (the Messiah of the Israelites, and Messiah of the Muslims). The word “nuzūl” does not mean to physically descend in all instances, as can be seen in the Qur’ān itself many times when Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) says that He has “sent down the Messenger, or the Qur’ān, or cows, or cattle” using the same word “nuzūl”. Therefore in any Ahadith where it is indicated that the Messiah shall appear to the east of Damascus, Syria near a White Minaret using the word “nuzūl”, it indicates that the word in that instance means he shall “appear” and not physically descend, as Jesus (as) is dead.

    Furthermore, the Messiah and Imam Mahdi are the same person, as can be seen by the 2 authentic Ahadith given in the beginning. In addition to those, there is an interesting Hadith narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī (ra), who is the seventh most prolific transmitter of Ahadith:

    Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī narrated, that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

    “If the bay’ah (oath of allegiance) has been taken for two caliphs, kill the one for whom the oath was taken later.” (Sahih Muslim – Hadith 4568)

    This indicates that the Ummah can never have 2 Leaders (like the Israelites did with Mūsa (as) and Harūn (as)) but only 1. Therefore the belief that Jesus will pray behind the Imam Mahdi is shattered to pieces, seeing as there cannot be 2 Imams of the Ummah, to the extent that the latter one – according to the Prophet (sa) – should be killed (ie. showing the severity of understanding there should only be 1 Imam of the Ummah).

    As far as yaksuru’l-salīb (breaking the cross) is concerned, the authentic and classical view of this is given by Badr al-Din al-Aynī (rh) in his well known commentary of Sahih al-Bukhari, “Umdah al-Qari fī Sharh Sahīh al-Bukhari” that this means to refute Christian doctrines and put an end to the dominance of Christianity as a world superpower.

    If you understand our understanding of Dajjal, the Dajjal itself constitutes the superpowers of the world that come from the false Christian tradition of today that are masters of merchandise and commerce (as can be seen by the first 10 verses of Surah al-Kahf in which it says to warn Christians that Allah did not have a son, and the 10th verse which states that out of the Ashab al-Kahf – the People of the Cave, or early monotheistic Messianic Jews – arose the Ashab al-Raqīm – the People of the Inscription (the word raqīm coming from the root word raqama, meaning to write down a price on articles of trade and commerce). Another hadith reveals that the Dajjal (Christian/Communist nations) shall be defeated by the breath of the Promised Messiah, and another one reveals that:

    “So when he makes his appearance and I am in your midst, I will overpower him with arguments on behalf of every Muslim; but if he appears after me, everyone should argue with him on their own behalf.” (Kanz al-‘Ummal Vol 7. #2076, 2025, 2079)

    To this effect, Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (‘alayhi al-salam) engaged in hundreds of debates with prominent Christian priests of his time and wrote voluminous books and thousands of letters refuting the Christian dogma, including his stalwart work, “Barāhīn-e-Ahmadīyyah ‘alā Haqīqah Kitāb Allāh al-Qur’ān wa al-Nabūwwah al-Muhammadīyyah” (Proofs of the Truth of the Book of Allah – the Qur’an, and the Prophethood of Muhammad). This was at a time that the Christians were a dominant superpower of the world and especially in India, where thousands upon thousands of Muslims were becoming Christians by the day. His efforts went so far that the Catholic Church has banned the literature of al-Jama’ah al-Islamiyyah al-Ahmadiyyah out of fear that it will convert its masses (being so rational and true).

    As far as distributing wealth that no one will want to take, there are many people who do not want to read the books of the Promised Messiah. The corpus of books the Promised Messiah produced is called Ruhānī Khazā’in (Spiritual Treasures) for a reason. He said, ““The treasures that laid buried for more than a thousand years; are now being distributed by me to the one who is ready to accept them.” ([Translation of an Urdu couplet] Barahin-e-Ahmadiyyah, vol. 5, p. 117, Ruhani Khaza’in, vol. 21, p. 147)

    As far as yaqtulu’l-khinzīr (kill the swine) is concerned, I have studied a book of Imam Ghazali (rahmatAllahu ‘alayh) called Kitab Sharhi ‘Ajā’ib al-Qalb (Book of the Beautiful Mysteries of the Heart) in which Imam Ghazali, Hujjah wa Mujjadid al-Islam, states that there are 3 states of soul that are inclined to sin:

    – Khinzīr al-Shahwah (Pig of Carnal Desires)
    – Kalb al-Ghadhab (Dog of Anger)
    – Shaytan al-Nafs (Demon of Soul)

    If it is understood that “khinzīr” here is a metaphor for “carnal desires” therefore it is fitting that the Prophet (sa) said the Messiah shall kill this pig of carnal desires, and not go around killing every pig, a feat which cannot be done by one man alone, serves no purpose, and is irrational. Another meaning of this is that when Muslims become the majority of the world (which Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad said would happen approx. 300 years after his death) the consumption of swine shall altogether be abandoned. In terms of him killing this pig of carnal desires, the 6th condition of Bay’ah has stipulated by our spiritual master the Imam Mahdi himself, is that:

    “That the murīd (initiate) refrain from following un-islamic customs and lustful inclinations, and shall completely submit himself/herself to the authority of the Holy Quran; and shall make the Word of God and the Sayings of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) the guiding principle in every walk of his/her life.”

    As far as yaḍaʿu’l-ḥarb / yaḍaʿu’l-jizya awzāruhā (ending war / end [the necessity for taking] Jizya) is concerned, the Promised Messiah (as) was a man of peace, to the extent that his final book written a day before his death was called “Message of Peace” having abolished the need for violent Jihād in modern times and replacing it with the need for Ijtihād (research) and Jihād bi al-Qalam (Striving for the Glory of Islam through the Pen), and emphasizing what was already known as the Greater Jihād of the Nafs, or the Purification of the Soul. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community furthermore is known as being peaceful in its entirety and has always been like that. As far as Jihad of the Nafs is concerned, he elucidated upon this matter in a very lucid and beautiful way in many of his books such as Chashma-e-Ma’rifat (Fountain of Divine Gnosis), Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam, and his various lectures.

    In one Jalsa Salana (Annual Convention) held in Lahore, he explained the tafsir of the following verse of the Qur’an:

    [8:61] And make ready for them whatever you can of armed force and of horses at the frontier, whereby you may frighten the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you know not, but Allah knows them.

    He explained that today, the horse you need to train is your nafs (soul), whereby you may frighten the enemy of Allah of your shahawāt and hawā (desires). He said that a person who engages in this inner battle with his soul is known as a Muttaqī (Spiritual Warrior). Some Muttaqīn fall and lose the battle. These people become atheists or Christians. Others however, win this inner battle and their soul goes to a stage of Nafs al-Mutma’innah (Soul at Peace) like the eye of a storm in a hurricane. At this point they are not Muttaqīn anymore, but now known as Salihīn. As a Muttaqī, your Salah is thawāb (reward) for you, but as a Salih, it ceases to become thawāb but is in fact the reason for your existence and in which your Heaven on Earth and eternal happiness lies.

    As far as the Imam Mahdi being Imāmukum minkum (Imam from amongst yourselves), Ḥakam (Arbiter of Fiqh and other Islamic matters), and ʿĀdil (just ruler), Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) was all these things. As Ibn ʿArabi states in his Kitab al-Mahdi that the Mahdi shall make new fatāwa not based on his hawā (desires) or ijtihād or the 4 classical madhāhib (Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafiʿi) but based on direct revelation (ilham) from Allah, and it is for this reason that the people shall reject him saying he is not practicing Islam as is understood by the fiqh of the 4 Classical Schools of Thought, this is exactly what happened. He further, as Hakam, said that his followers should follow the fuquha’ of the Hanafi madhhab, which is what we do, and by inference it is understood that the Usul of the Hanafi madhhab should also be used. He said that if all these sources have been taken into account but still no answer can be understood for a predicament, then the ʿUlama of the Jama’at should make a judgement themselves, as understood by the hadith in which the Prophet (sa) said “Istaftu Qalbik – Make a fatwa with your own heart (as your guide)”.

    Now the verdict of the Prophet Muhammad (sa) is given in Sahih al-Bukhari in regards to who the Akharina Minhum (the latter ones) are to whom the Prophet (sa) shall appear a second time, in that a person from Persia (from the people of Salman al-Farsi) shall revive the faith of Islam which shall have ascended to the heavens in his time. This is a time described in the Qur’an as being when the Prophet Muhammad (sa) shall say:

    [25:31] And the Messenger will say, ‘O my Lord, my people indeed treated this Qur’an as an abandoned thing.’

    Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) was that Persian man (Mirza being a title of Persian royalty) who was a descendant of the Prophet (sa) through Hadrat Fatima Zahra (radiAllahu ‘anha) through his mother’s side.

    As far as location of the Imam Mahdi, there are many contradictory locations given in the Ahadith such as that he shall appear in Bayt al-Muqqadas in Jerusalem, in Mekkah, in Madinah, in Yemen, in Khorasan (Persia), in India, and in other places.

    The following Ahadith are interesting:

    “A group will fight in al-Hind (India). They will be with the Imam al-Mahdi whose name shall be Ahmad.” (Imam Bukhari has narrated this)

    “There will be two parties in my People whom Allah has saved from the fire; one of them will fight in India and the other party will be with Isa bin Maryam (as)” (Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5 and Sunan al-Nasa’i, Vol. 2)

    ”The Holy Prophet (saw) has said that People will rise from the East (al-Mashriq) who would inform about the place of Mahdi who would be their leader that is to say that they will support him and will assist him in his task.” (Bihār al-Anwār, Vol. 13; Abū Dawūd, Vol. 2, and Ibn Mājāh)

    ”Yakhruj al-Mahdīyu min Qaryatin Yuqalu lahā Kadā’ah – The Mahdi will appear in a village called Kadā’ah.” (Jawāhir al-Asrār, pg. 55)

    The word qaryah means village, and it is indeed the same word used in the Qur’an to indicate the coming of the Mahdi (from the village of Qadian, ie. Kadā’ah).

    As far as the time of the Mahdi, the following narrations should suffice:

    ‘Islam will have three centuries of greatness after which, it will ascend back to the heaven for a thousand years.’ (Bukhari, vol. 4).

    ‘People will gather around the Imam al-Mahdi in the year 1400 AH.’ (Risalat al-Huruj al-Mahdi, pg. 108)

    ‘The Mahdi shall appear in the 14th Century’ (Mishkat al-Masabih, Book of Fitan, Chapter III, section III)

    ‘The Imam Mahdi shall appear in the 14th Century’ (al-Najm al-Thāqib dar Ahwāl Imām al-Ghayb by classical Muhaddith, al-Hajj Mirza Hussayn al-Nuri al-Tabarsi; more about the book and author: http://iec-md.org/bookstore/e-library/Imam%20Mahdi's%20Articles/books/najsaqib.htm)

    One of the greatest signs of the Mahdi, which cannot be forged by humans but is most certainly the Will of God Himself, and is narrated in the Biblical, Native American (of North, Central and South Americas), Hindu, and other traditions of coming to pass for the Promised One, is the eclipse of the sun and moon.

    (Note: as far as the Native American traditions are concerned, they also tell of the coming of the Messiah from the East, who shall have light brown skin and a voluminous beard, and of a great nation of colonialist Caucasian people conquering their lands and becoming the world superpower using their vehicles of the car, train, and plane known as “Bahanna” in the Native tradition and Dajjal in the Islamic).

    [75:9] Wa Khasafa al-Qamar – And the Full Moon is eclipsed.
    [75:10] Wa Jumi’ al-Shamsu wa al-Qamaru – And the sun and the moon are brought together.

    Seyyidina Imam Baqar Muhammad ibn ‘Alī narrated that the Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

    “For our Mahdi (Divine Reformer) there are two signs (Āyatayn) which have never appeared before since the creation of the heavens and the earth, namely the Full Moon (al-Qamar) will be eclipsed on the first night in Ramadan (i.e. on the first of the nights on which a lunar eclipse can occur) and the sun will be eclipsed in its middle (i.e. on the middle day of the days on which a solar eclipse can occur), and these signs have not appeared since God created the heavens and the earth.” (Compilation of Daraqutni, Vol 1, page 188)

    To analyze this Hadith by Dirāyah, this is in exact confirmation of the Surah al-Qayamah where the eclipses are mentioned.

    In terms of Riwāyah, the Hadith was narrated by Shaykh al-Islam ‘Ali ibn ‘Umar al-Daraqutni (radiAllahu ‘anhu) (306 – 385) who, it should be mentioned, rapidly acquired Arabic literature and became known for his knowledge of the Islamic sciences, in particular that of ‘Ilm al-Hadith (the traditions of the Prophet). He also learnt the 7 variant readings of the Qur’an (qira’at) and was the first Islamic scholar to write a book about it. He was a master in Hadith Science, Qira’at, Fiqh, Adab (Arabic literature), and Maghāzī (historiography of the battles of the Prophet Muhammad (sa)).

    He was recognized for his wide and critical knowledge of Hadith. He had many renowned students, from Abu Nu’ayam al-Isfahani and the Muhaddith Ghani ibn Sa’id al-Hakim who himself narrates traditions from about 2,000 individuals. Imam Ghani ibn Sa’id al-Hakim remarked about al-Daraqutni that he ‘never met such a scholar as al-Daraqutni’.

    Imam al-Daraqutni checked all the Ahadith which he came upon and he finally inserted the authentic and sound ones into his Sunan, making sure of their reliability i.e. the isnads (chains of narration) and also clearly pointed to those which were adjudged to be weak, and making every attempt to fix their degree of reliability and also the reliability of the narrators and their characters.

    Not only did Imam al-Daraqutni narrate this as a specific sign for the Mahdi, but Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (rh), also known as Mujjadid Alf Thani (Centennial Reformer of the Second Millennium of Islam) and Imam Rabbani, also narrated the sign of the eclipses being a sign for the true Imam al-Mahdi. He wrote:

    “During his [Mahdi’s] reign, on the fourteenth of the Ramadan, a solar eclipse will occur. On the first of that month, the Moon will darken.” (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, p. 380; Letters of Rabbani, vol. 2, p. 1163)

    According to Usul al-Hadith, this Hadith can be found to be Sahih (authentic) as well.

    So the Hadith states that the full moon (al-Qamar) will be eclipsed on the first night in Ramadan (i.e. on the first of the nights on which a lunar eclipse can occur) and the sun will be eclipsed in its middle (i.e. on the middle day of the days on which a solar eclipse can occur).

    According to astronomical physics, the moon can ONLY be eclipsed on the 13th, 14th, or 15th of the lunar month of Ramadan, and the sun ONLY on the 27th, 28th, and 29th of the month. This is corroborated by scientific research carried out by Dr. David McNaughton and the late Dr. Saleh Mohammed Alladin, Retired Professor of Astronomy at Osmania University, Hyderabad, India and noted as one of the 100 top scientists of the past century (who was also Ahmadi Muslim).

    Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) said that these signs will appear for him. And they subsequently did, being outside of the sphere of human undertaking, in 1894, whereupon the moon eclipsed on the 13th night of Ramadan and the sun on the 28th. This exact occurrence (lunar eclipse on the 13th and solar eclipse on the 28th of Ramadan) happened again in the Western hemisphere of the world in 1895, whereupon a Native American spiritual teacher named Wovoka fell into a 3-day coma during the lunar eclipse, and upon awakening told his followers that “Jesus is now alive and walks upon the earth, and is living in the East.”

    There are 3 words for moon in Arabic; namely, “badr” (crescent moon), “qamar” (full moon) and “badr” (waxing moon). The hadith specifically mentions the word Qamar for the lunar eclipse, indicating it should occur in the middle of the lunar month (as full moons do).

    Thus, the sign was fulfilled, and this is outside of any human invention or forgery.

    As far as the Imam Mahdi’s name being “like my name (Prophet Muhammad) and his father’s name like my father’s”, Mirza Ghulam was the family name, and his personal name was Ahmad, the name of the Prophet (sa). His father was Mirza Ghulam Murtadha (Ghulam meaning Slave) and thus Slave of the Murtadha, while the Prophet’s father’s name was ‘Abd Allah (Slave of Allah).

    It can be noted that the Prophet (sa) was also called ‘Abd Allah by Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) Himself,
    and the Imam Mahdi is Ghulam Ahmad (Servant of Muhammad) or the Servant of the Servant.

    Ja’far al-Sādiq (ra), who was a Tābi’ and renowned scholar of the Ahl-e-Sunnah who personally taught Imam Abu Hanifah, and is revered by the Shi’ah community as well as an Imam, said that people all over the world would be able to listen to the Imam Mahdi’s (as) words instantaneously through simultaneous translations.

    “Dhurara narrated: I asked Imam Ja’far al-Sādiq, is the proclamation true? And he said: “Yes I swear by Allah (Wallah), every people will hear him in their own language” (al-Ghaybah al-Nu’mani, Chapter 14,
    Signs That Will Take Place before the Coming of the Qaym)

    The Khutbah al-Jumu’ah (Friday Sermon) of the Khalifa’tul-Masih (Caliph of the Messiah), our International Supreme Head (fulfilling prophecies in the Qur’an and Ahadith about the revival of Khilafah in Islam – Caliphate) is broadcast to the world in more simultaneous translations than the United Nations. In his Sermons he often mentions the words and writings of the Promised Messiah (as), so this is an exact fulfillment of this prophecy:

    Indeed the International Bay’ah (Initiation) Ceremony is further truth of that:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGRjQWkj1_w

    There is an athar that the Imam Mahdi will be first spotted by a man wearing a turban:

    “There will be a man wearing a turban who will point to the Mahdi (as) and shout aloud: “That is the Imam al-Mahdi (as), the Caliph of Allah! Obey him!” (al-Barzanji, al-Isha’ah li-ashrat al-Sa’ah, pg.164-165)

    This man wearing a turban who was the first to take the bay’ah of Seyyidina Ahmad (as) was none other than al-Hājj Mawlāna Hāfiz Hakīm Noor-ud-Din (ra), the first murīd of the Imam Mahdi. He was a Hafiz of the Qur’an, studied ‘Ilm al-Hadith and Usul al-Hadith in Makkah al-Mukurramah and Madinah al-Munawwarah having memorized thousands upon thousands of Ahadith, was a Mufassir of wide acclaim delivering his many durūs on the Tafsir of the Qur’an and compiling his own Tafsir called Haqā’iq al-Furqān (حقائق الفرقان or “Inner Verities of the Discriminant”), and a Wali’Allah (Friend of God) being given many revelations by God Himself. He was also a Muslim who engaged in Tasawwuf and self-purification, and trained in the Islamic Sciences (‘Ulum al-Islam). He was, a Shaykh al-Islam who later became the first Khalifah (Successor) to the Imam Mahdi, and wore the Prophetic turban and kept the Sunnah beard as well.

    There was also, for example, Imam al-Hafiz Rushan ‘Ali (ra), the Head Shaykh in the Silsilah (Chain/Sanad) of the Nawsha’i Qadiriyyah Sufi Tariqah (Order) with thousands of murids (disciples) and a Hafiz of the Qur’an. He became a follower of Seyyidina Ahmad as the Imam Mahdi, and wrote an article in English about Sufism and how Imam Ahmad (as) as the Imam Mahdi was the true Sufi who engaged in Tasawwuf in modern times.
    http://www.muslimsunrise.com/dmddocuments/1981_iss_1_to_2.pdf (pp.15-42)

    As explained in the previous post, the Prophet Muhammad (sa) IS the Final Prophet. The type of Nabuwwah claimed by the Imam Mahdi (being Mas’um – sinless, as Ibn ‘Arabi said he would be in his Kitab al-Mahdi) due to Allah’s revelation telling him to, does not break the Khatam (Seal) of Prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

    As far as the signs of al-Dukhan (the Great Smoke) and Da’bbah al-Ardh (Insect of the Earth) are concerned, these are both understood as being nuclear warfare (as indicated in the Qur’an itself), and AIDS virus, both of which have come to pass. As far as the Sun (of Islam) rising from the West, this will insha’Allah come to pass as well after 200 or so more years.

    There are many, many more dalā’il (evidences) of the truth of Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) as the Imam Mahdi and Messiah, however these should suffice for now.

    May Allah guide all to the truth of his Messiah and Mahdi.

    Wa ākhiri da’wanā ani al-Hamdu liAllāh, al-Rabb al-’Ālamīn – And our final message is to praise Allah, Lord of all the realms.

  5. Wa alaikum salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu

    Welcome to my online home. May Allah bless you with every goodness. Thank you for your very extensive post. I haven’t yet had time to read through it fully. I will do so soon, insha Allah

  6. JazakAllahu ta’ala khayran, dear brother. I find it pertinent at this juncture to also show you some of the spiritual treasures that Ahmad (as) brought to the world.

    “‘The verse of the Quran: “Yea! whoever surrenders himself entirely to Allah and is a Muhsin (has such a strong connection with God that he may be said to see Him at the time of worship), has his reward from his Lord, and there is no fear for such nor shall they grieve” (Al-Baqarah 2:113) alludes to the three important stages of perfect goodness: Fana (self-annihilation), Baqa (regeneration), and Liqa (union with God). The words (2 :113) ‘surrenders himself entirely to Allah’ clearly teach that all our powers, organs, and whatever belongs to us should be surrendered to God and employed in His service, and this state of man is known as Fana or death, for when a man surrenders his whole self and all his powers to the will of God and totally resigns himself to His service with a complete extinction of his selfish desires and pleasures, he doubtless brings upon himself a death which the mystics call Fana.

    The clause that follows, viz., ‘and he is a Muhsin’ alludes to the stage of Baqa (regeneration), for when a man is quickened by the love of God and moves simply in obedience to His will, after a perfect and complete annihilation andforgetfulness of self and after the extinction of all selfish desires, he is granted a second life which may be called Baqa.

    And the clauses that follow, viz, “He has his reward from his Lord, and there is no fear for such, nor shall they grieve” which give a promise of reward, allude to the stage of Liqa or union with God. It is the highest stage of knowledge, certainty, trust and love…

    …Such a state is termed Liqa. The word Muhsin in the above verse most clearly points to this stage, because Ihsan, according to the explanation of our Holy Prophet (sa), signifies a perfect state in which a man has such a connection with the Almighty that he, as it were, sees Him at the time of his worship.

    This state of Liqa is fully realised by the spiritual wayfarer (salik) when his humanity is over-coloured by the Divinity and completely concealed and hidden under it, just as fire overcolours iron in such a way that apparently the iron becomes fire. And it is at this stage that some seekers after God have stumbled. The apparent has been taken for the real. The Awliya’ (friends of God) who attain to this point and those who get a glimpse of it have been called ‘Atfal Allah’ (the children of Allah) by some mystics because they throw themselves, as it were, into the lap of Divine attributes. And just as a son resembles his father in physical features and outward appearance, the beautiful attributes of God are reflected to a certain extent in such men as a result of their efforts to imitate the attributes of God…

    …Now in this stage of Liqa a man sometimes works things which appear superhuman and are a manifestation of Divine power. For instance, our Lord and Master, the Seal of Prophets (sa) threw a handful of pebbles at the infidels in the battle of Badr. But this handful of stones had such an extraordinary effect upon the enemy that not a single eye could escape it. All were blinded and frightened and were seized with panic, and it is to this miracle that the holy verse alludes:

    “When thou didst cast, not thou but God didst cast.” (Al-Anfal 8:18)

    A human being could not do it, it was the hidden Divine power that did it…

    …It should also be clearly understood that after the realisation of the stage of self-annihilation, Fana according to the mystics, and Istiqamat (steadfastness) according to the Holy Qur’an, the stages of Baqa and Liqa immediately follow. Fana means total forgetfulness of self, complete extinction of desire, and perfect surrender of will. As soon as this stage is secured, the stage of Baqa begins, and is fully realised, when this state becomes quite permanent, when complete submission to God becomes a natural propensity, when the green and blooming offshoots of obedience sprout from the heart like a natural growth, when all that is looked upon as ours becomes God’s, when the sweetest pleasures consist in his adoration and remembrance of God, and when personal desires give place to the will of God.

    Now begins the third stage. The second stage being fully realised and secured, the third condition enters into the very flesh and bones of the spiritual wayfarer and becomes part and parcel of his nature. A light descends from heaven and Divine luster illumines everything. A most sweet and pleasant love which we never before experienced sweetens the heart. Coolness, tranquility, joy and delight fill the heart as if a very dear friend, long separated from us, had suddenly come and embraced us. Words of God, lucid, delicious, blessed, delightful, rhetorical, fragrant and cheerful, begin to descend upon the holy man while standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, and it appears as if, a cool, gentle and fragrant morning breeze has come from over a garden, laden with intoxicating perfume and delight. He is drawn to God and always meditates upon Him. Life without His Love is with him an utter impossibility. He is not simply ready to sacrifice his life, property, honour and children and whatever belongs to him for His sake but he has already sacrificed everything in his heart. He feels that he is very strongly drawn and attracted but he does not know what has happened to him. He finds the heavenly light fast spreading within him like broad daylight.

    Having attained to this last stage, a man feels that he has been cleansed by many pure waters and that, all the tendons of his self having been cut, he has been created a second time and, the throne (al-‘Arsh) of the Creator and Sustainer of all the worlds (Rabb al-‘Alamin) has been placed within him whereon sits for ever in transcendent purity and beauty God, the Holiest, with His charming face shining with its heavenly lustre.

    But at the same time it should be remembered that these two last stages of Baqa and Liqa are not in any way acquired, but God-given gifts. Efforts and endeavours can take us only to the stage of Fana and no further. The Holy journey of all pious people comes to an end at this stage, and the circle of human excellences is complete at this point. And when the pious have attained to this stage, then all at once there blows a gentle breeze of heavenly bliss over them and takes them to the stages of Baqa and Liqa.”

    (“Mirror of the Excellences of Islam” by Seyyidina Ahmad al-Imam al-Mahdi)

  7. “For thirty five years, I have observed that revelation which is the source of spiritual understanding and of the knowledge of the unseen descends upon the heart. Very often a voice strikes the heart with force, as a bucket is thrown with force into a well full of water, and that water of the heart surges up like a closed blossom and arriving near the brain blooms like a flower and gives birth to words which are words of the Divine. These spiritual experiences establish that the brain is not concerned with knowledge and true understanding. It is true that if the brain is healthy and suffers from no defect it is benefited by the secret knowledge possessed by the heart, and as the brain is the centre of the nervous system it is like a machine which can pump up water from the well. The heart is the well which is the fountainhead of hidden knowledge. This is a secret that has been discovered by men of truth through true visions and I myself have experience of it.”

    (“Fountain of Divine Gnosis” by Seyyidina Ahmad al-Imam al-Mahdi)

  8. ““In case it is asked, if this spiritual station is already occupied by my humble person and the Messiah (son of Mary), what station would remain for our lord and master, the best of Messengers (Seyyid al-Rusul) and the Seal of Prophets (al-Khātam al-Nabiyyeen), the Holy Prophet Muhammad (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم)? Let it be clear that his is the most exalted and superior station, the sole occupant of which is the Holy Prophet (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم) —the Perfect Man (al-Insān al-Kāmil الإنسان الكامل) — alone. No one else can even remotely approach its unsurpassing quality—let alone attain it.

    In order to get an idea of the great spiritual station of the Holy Prophet (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم), it must be pointed out that the stations of love and of close relationship to Allāh in the context of spiritual levels are of three kinds.

    The lowest level which in its own right is exalted enough, is where the flames of Divine love do warm the human heart even to the extent that the resultant warmth sometimes begins to function quite like fire; yet it falls short of being radiant like it. As the flames of Divine love (al-Habb Allāh) fall on love at this level, the warmth generated by these flames may be described as Peace (salām) and Tranquility and sometimes even as Angels (malā’ikah).

    The second level of love has already been described above. At this level, the two loves meet; the flame of Divine love heats up the human heart to the extent that it begins to glow like fire but its flames are not angry or aggressive but only lambent and are described as Ruh al-Quddus (The Holy Spirit).

    At the third level of love, the blazing flames of Divine love fall on the inflammable wick of human love and set it afire, enveloping it in all its parts and ramifications, and transforming it into its complete and perfect manifestation. In this condition, the fire of Divine love not only lends the human heart a kind of glow, but all of a sudden, the entire being (of the recipient) also catches fire; its flames illuminate the environs quite like the bright day. Not a vestige of darkness remains. One’s entire being turns into light, complete with its fiery qualities. This condition which is so ablaze, comes into being with the union of the two loves and is known as Ruhul al-Amin (The Protective Spirit), for it provides immunity against every kind of darkness and is free from any estrangement. Its other name is Shadeed al-Quwwah (Extreme Strength) because the revelational experience it denotes is of the mightiest degree. A mightier revelation is unthinkable. It is also called Dhul Ufuqil A‘la —the master of the loftiest horizon — because it is a manifestation of Divine revelation of the highest order. It is also known as R’a mā R’a (He saw what He saw), for the comprehension of this condition is beyond human ken, imagination, or fancy.

    This super-condition was vouchsafed to the one and only person in the entire world namely the Perfect Man. He alone is the culmination and apex of human excellence. It is in his person that the evolutionary cycle of human potentiality reached absolute perfection. Indeed he is the last point on the higher scale of the extended line of God’s creation and constitutes the absolute pinnacle of all spiritual heights. Divine wisdom initiated the evolutionary process at the lowest level of creation with the meanest of creatures and caused it to attain the highest point, the other name of which is Muhammad — peace and blessings of God be upon him صلى الله عليه و سلم. The name Muhammad (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم) signifies the most praised one or the one who is the supreme embodiment of all perfection and excellence. Just as the Holy Prophet’s (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم) innate spiritual station was extremely exalted and so high and lofty, the quality of revelation vouchsafed to him was also very high.

    It is too exalted a station for me or the Messiah (‘Eisa bin Maryam [‘alayhi al-salam]) to attain.

    It is known as the Meeting Point or the point (nuqtah) of Absolute Union. The earlier Prophets who foretold the coming of the Holy Prophet (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم) envisaged the same station and its hallmark. Indeed it was to this unique station that they chose to refer.

    Furthermore, the spiritual station the Messiah and I share, could figuratively be described as that of being the spiritual son of the Holy Prophet (ṣallAllāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam صلى الله عليه و سلم). His spiritual station is in fact so lofty that the earlier Prophets described the coming of its occupant as if it were the coming of God Himself.”

    – Haḍrat Mirza Ghulām Ahmad مرزا غلام احمد, al-Masih al-Mau’ood wa’l Mahdi al-Mau’ood wa’l Imam al-Akhareen (‘alayhi al-salam عليها السلام) in his book Tau‎ḍih-e-Marām (Elucidation of Objectives)


  9. “Verily the Fatiha is a holy plant that yields constantly the fruits of pure insight and fills one with drink from the goblets of truth and wisdom. When a person opens his heart to admit its light, that light enters therein and makes it aware of its mysteries, and whoso shuts this door draws, by his own act, darkness upon himself and witnesses his own ruin and joins the spiritually dead…

    …The Fatiha is truly at once a fortified castle, a bright light, a teacher and a helper. It secures the commandments of the Qur’an against addition or subtraction like securing the frontiers of a realm thus preserving its integrity. It may be compared to a camel carrying every needed provision by way of food, drink, clothing etc. that transports its rider to the land of the beloved. Or it is like a reservoir with an abundant supply of water as if it were the confluence of many streams or the channel of a mighty river. I find that the benefits of this noble Surah and its fine qualities are beyond count and defy computation and that it is not within human capacity to enumerate them, even if one were to dedicate a whole lifetime to this enterprise…

    …To be more explicit. The attributes together with the name of the Supreme Being mentioned in the beginning of this Surah, that is Allah, Rabbil-aalameen, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim and Malike Yaumiddeen constitute, as it were, five oceans.”

    (Tafsir Surah al-Fatihah by Seyyidina Ahmad, al-Imam al-Mahdi – a book of compilations of writings of the Imam Mahdi written mostly in eloquent classical Arabic which were tafasir of Surah al-Fatihah, which reach upwards of 400 pages when compiled together)


  10. “Say, ‘If every ocean becomes ink for the words of my Lord, surely, the ocean would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even though We brought the like thereof as further help.’” (The Holy Qur’an 18:110)

    “The Holy Qur’an is not matchless merely on account of the beauty of its composition, but is matchless on account of all its excellences which it claims to comprise and that is the truth, for whatever proceeds from God Almighty is not unique only on account of one quality but on account of every one of its qualities. Those who do not accept the Holy Qur’an as comprehensive of unlimited eternal truths and insights, do not value the Qur’an as it should be valued. A necessary sign for the recognition of the holy and true Word of God is that it should be unique in all its qualities, for we observe that whatever proceeds from God Almighty is unique and matchless even if it is only a grain of barley, and human powers cannot match it. Being matchless means being unlimited, that is to say, a thing can be matchless only when its wonders and qualities are unlimited and have no end. As we have just stated, this characteristic is found in everything created by God Almighty. For instance, if the wonders of a leaf of a tree are investigated for a thousand years, that period would come to an end, but the wonders of the leaf will not come to an end. That which has come into being through unlimited power, must comprise unlimited wonders and qualities. The verse,

    “Say, ‘If every ocean becomes ink for the words of my Lord, surely, the ocean would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even though We brought the like thereof as further help;’” (18:110)

    supports this, for the whole of creation is Words of God.

    …. Thus this verse means that the qualities of creation are without limit and endless. Now when every created thing possesses unlimited and endless qualities and comprises numberless wonders then how could the Holy Qur’an, which is the Holy Word of God Almighty, be confined to the few meanings which may be set out in a commentary of forty or fifty or a thousand volumes, or could have been expounded by our lord and master the Holy Prophet [peace and blessings of Allah be on him] in a limited period? To say so would almost amount to disbelief, if it is deliberately persisted in. It is true that whatever the Holy Prophet [peace and blessings of Allah be on him] has set forth as the meaning of the Holy Qur’an is true and correct, but it is not true that the Holy Qur’an contains no more than the insights that have been set forth by the Holy Prophet [peace and blessings of Allah be on him]. Such sayings of our opponents indicate that they do not believe in the unlimited greatness and qualities of the Holy Qur’an.

    Whereas the Holy Quran says, “Say, ‘If every ocean becomes ink for the words of my Lord, surely, the ocean would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even though We brought the like thereof as further help.’” (al-Qur’an al-Karim 18:110)”

    (“Noble Virtues of the Truthful” by Seyyidina Ahmad, al-Imam al-Mahdi – an Arabic book of Divine eloquence composed by the Promised Messiah)

  11. “It is the attraction which the True Creator has implanted in the nature of man. The same attraction comes into play whenever a person feels love for another. It is a reflection of the attraction that is inherent in man’s nature towards God, as if he is in search of something that he misses, the name of which he has forgotten and which he seeks to find in one thing or another which he takes up from time to time. A person’s love of wealth or offspring or wife or his soul being attracted towards a musical voice are all indications of his search for the True Beloved. As man cannot behold with his physical eyes the Imperceptible Being, Who is latent like the quality of fire in everyone, but is hidden, nor can he discover Him through the mere exercise of imperfect reason, he has been misled grievously in his search and has mistakenly assigned His position to others.

    The Holy Qur’an has, in this context, set forth an excellent illustration, to the effect that the world is like a palace, the floor of which is paved with smooth slabs of glass, under which flows a rapid current of water. Every eye that beholds this floor mistakenly imagines it to be running water. A person fears to tread upon the floor as he would be afraid of treading upon running water, though in reality the floor is only paved with smooth transparent slabs of glass. Thus these heavenly bodies like the sun and the moon etc. are the smooth and transparent slabs of glass under which a great power is in operation like a fast flowing current of water. It is a great mistake on the part of those who worship these heavenly bodies that they attribute to them that which is manifested by the power that operates behind them…

    …’All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.’ (The Holy Qur’an, al-Hashr 59:25)

    The dwellers of the heaven and the dwellers of the earth glorify Him. This is an indication that the heavenly bodies are also populated and their dwellers follow Divine guidance…

    …Such a one shares with his fellow beings, according to their respective ranks, the bounties with which God has favoured him, like knowledge, understanding, wealth and means of comfort. He sheds his light like the sun upon the whole of mankind, and like the moon, acquiring light from God, conveys it to others. Being illumined like the day he shows the paths of virtue and goodness to others, and like the night he covers up their weaknesses and provides comfort for those who are weary. Like the sky he provides shelter under his shade for everyone who is in need, and pours down the rain of grace at its proper time. Like the earth, out of utter humility, he becomes like a floor for everyone’s comfort and gathers them close to afford them security, and offers them diverse types of spiritual fruits.

    In this context, God Almighty has said:

    ‘By the sun and its growing brightness, And by the moon when it follows it (the sun), And by the day when it reveals its glory, And by the night when it draws a veil over it, And by the heaven and its making, And by the earth and its spreading out, And by the soul and its perfection—And He revealed to it what is wrong for it and what is right for it—He indeed truly prospers who purifies it, And he who corrupts it is ruined.” (The Holy Qur’an, al-Shams 91:2-11)

    …The windows of heaven are about to open, the day is about to dawn. Blessed are those who should rise up and seek the True God, the One Who is not overtaken by any calamity, the brilliance of Whose Glory is never dimmed. It is said in the Holy Qur’an:

    ‘Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.’ (The Holy Qur’an, al-Nur 24:36)

    meaning that all the light of the heavens and the earth proceeds from God and lights up everything. He is the Sun that bestows light upon the sun, and He is the life of all the animates in the earth. He is the True Living God. Blessed are those who accept Him…

    …’By the cloud which gives rain after rain, And by the earth which opens out with herbage, It is surely a decisive word, And it is not a useless talk.’ (The Holy Qur’an, at-Tariq 86:12-15)

    Here God Almighty has set forth a well known law of nature in support of the truth of the Holy Qur’an, which is His Word. It is a matter of common observation that at a time of need rain comes down from heaven and that the vegetation of the earth all depends upon rain. When rain is held back then gradually the wells also run dry, so that the water in the earth also depends upon rain from heaven. That is why in the rainy season the level of the water in the wells also rises, the reason for which is that heavenly water exercises a pull upon earthly water. The same is the relationship between divine revelation and human reason. Divine revelation is heavenly water and reason is earthly water which receives sustenance from heavenly water. When heavenly water, that is to say, divine revelation, is held back, the earthly water also dries up gradually. That is the reason why, when a long time passes and no recipient of revelation appears on the earth, the reason of the wise is corrupted, as earthly water is corrupted and dries up.

    To appreciate this phenomenon it would be enough to cast a glance at the condition of the world immediately before the advent of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. As six hundred years had passed after the time of Jesus (as), and no recipient of revelation had appeared during the interval, the whole world had been corrupted.”

    (“Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam” by Seyyidina Ahmad al-Imam al-Mahdi – a most beautiful metaphysical, philosophical and mystical work on the inner verities of Islam)


  12. Wa alaikum salam brother,

    I have read through the first three posts, and am working my way through the remainder. Allah! There is a lot of material!

  13. as-Salamu ‘Alaykum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu brother!

    I hope you may have gotten around to reading all of the gems of al-Imam al-Mahdi (quddusAllahu sirruhu) by now. Please do let me know what you think and reflect about what you may have read.

  14. Salams brother

    Unfortunately, life has kept me very busy over the last few months. Moreover, sometimes these things are better passed through spoken word, in sohbet.

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